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Yemen is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the world. Between the ninth century BC and the sixth century AD, it was part of the Sabaean, Awsanian, Minaean, Qatabanian, Hadhramawtian, Himyarite, and some other kingdoms, which controlled the lucrative spice trade. It was known to the Ancient Romans as Arabia Felix ("Lucky Arabia") because of the riches its trade generated. Augustus Caesar attempted to annex it, but the expedition failed. The Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum annexed it by around 520, and it was subsequently taken by the Sassanids Persians around 570. Yemen is considered as one of the ancient civilization in the world Yemen has become most visited area on the region not only because it is attractive country but because the people who take an interest in its heritage, unique picturesque, landscapes and geographical variety. By other meaning Yemen is well known and famous – in addition to the historical sites – by mild climate divided to green mountains, long beaches, wide deserts and islands which have rarest kinds of plants and animals. Which make any group coming to Yemen for tourism are interested to extend their visit. What make it more encouraging Yemenis welcoming and hospitality.
Yemen is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the world. Between the ninth century BC and the sixth century AD, it was part of the Sabaean, Awsanian, Minaean, Qatabanian, Hadhramawtian, Himyarite, and some other kingdoms, which controlled the lucrative spice trade. It was known to the Ancient Romans as Arabia Felix ("Lucky Arabia") because of the riches its trade generated. Augustus Caesar attempted to annex it, but the expedition failed. The Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum annexed it by around 520, and it was subsequently taken by the Sassanids Persians around 570. In the 3rd century and again in the late sixth and early seventh centuries AD, many Sabaean and Himyarite people migrated out of the land of Yemen following the destructions of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib) and migrated to North Africa and northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. In the 7th century, Islamic caliphs began to exert control over the area. After this caliphate broke up, the former North Yemen came under control of Imams of various dynasties usually of the Zaidi sect, who established a theocratic political structure that survived until modern times. (Imam is a religious term. The Shi'ites apply it to the prophet Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, his sons Hassan and Hussein, and subsequent lineal descendants, whom they consider to have been divinely ordained unclassified successors of the prophet.) Egyptian Sunni Caliphs occupied much of North Yemen throughout the eleventh century. By the sixteenth century and again in the nineteenth century, north Yemen was part of the Ottoman Empire, and in some periods its Imams exerted control over south Yemen. North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and became a republic in 1962. In 1839, the British occupied the port of Aden and established it as a colony in September of that year. They also set up a zone of loose alliances (known as protectorates) around Aden to act as a protective buffer. In 1967, the British withdrew and gave back Aden to Yemen due to extreme pressure of battles with the North and Egyptian allies. After the British withdrawal, this area became known as South Yemen. The two countries were formally united as the Republic of Yemen on May 22 1990.
Yemen is a republic with a bicameral legislature. Under the constitution, an elected president, an elected 301-seat House of Representatives, and an appointed 111-member Shura Council share power. The president is head of state, and the prime minister is head of government. The constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by Parliament; the prime minister is appointed by the president. The presidential term of office is seven years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is six years. Suffrage is universal over 18 years of age. President Ali Abdullah Saleh became the first elected President in reunified Yemen in 1999 [though he had been President of unified Yemen since 1990 and President of North Yemen since 1978] and most recently was re-elected in September of 2006 after an initial reluctance to run once more. His victory was marked by an election that international observers judged to be "generally free and fair." Popular demonstrations and editorials of support in major papers helped change his mind to run again. In April 2003 parliamentary elections were held, and the General People's Congress (GPC) maintained an absolute majority. The constitution calls for an independent judiciary. The former northern and southern legal codes have been unified. The legal system includes separate commercial courts and a Supreme Court based in Sana?. Since the country is an Islamic state, the Islamic holy book, the Qur'an, is the basis for all laws, and no law may contradict the Qur'an. Indeed many court cases are debated by the religious basis of the laws i.e. by interpretations of the Qur'an. For this reason, many Judges are religious scholars as well as legal authorities. Unlike Saudi Arabia and other Islamic states, the consumption of alcohol by foreigners is tolerated, and the mild stimulant Qat is chewed by Yemenis of all strata of society, despite being banned or frowned upon by other Islamic countries and groups. The political elites of Yemen are the Hashid tribe and the Bakeel tribe. President Ali Abdullah Saleh and the Speaker of the Parliment are from the Hashid Tribe.
In terms of GDP per capita, Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Arab world. Remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid paid for perennial trade deficits. Substantial Yemeni communities exist in many countries of the world, including Yemen's immediate neighbors on the Arabian Peninsula, Indonesia, India, East Africa, and also the United Kingdom, and the United States, especially in the area around Detroit, Michigan. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union and China provided large-scale assistance. For example the Chinese are currently involved with the expansion of the International Airport in Sanaa. In the south, pre-independence economic activity was overwhelmingly concentrated in the port city of Aden. The seaborne transit trade, which the port relied upon, collapsed with the closure of the Suez Canal and Britain's withdrawal from Aden in 1967. Since unification, the government has worked to integrate two relatively disparate economic systems. However, severe shocks, including the return in 1990 of approximately 850,000 Yemenis from the Gulf states, a subsequent major reduction of aid flows, and internal political disputes culminating in the 1994 civil war hampered economic growth. Yemen, the fastest growing democracy in the Middle East, is attempting to climb into the middle human development region through ongoing political and economic reform. Since the conclusion of the war, the government entered into agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to implement a structural adjustment program. Phase one of the IMF program included major financial and monetary reforms, including floating the currency, reducing the budget deficit, and cutting subsidies. Phase two will address structural issues such as civil service reform. In early 1995, the government of Yemen launched an economic, financial and administrative reform program (EFARP) with the support of the World Bank and the IMF, as well international donors. The First Five-Year Plan (FFYP) for the years 1996 to 2000 was introduced in 1996. The World Bank has focused on public sector management,including civil service reform, budget reform and privatization. In addition, attracting diversified private investment, water management and poverty-oriented social sector improvements has been made a priority for the implementation of the programs in Yemen. These programs had a positive impact on Yemen?s economy and led to the reduction of the budget deficit to less than 3% of GDP during the period 1995-99 and the correction of macro-financial imbalances. In 1997, IMF and the government began medium-term economic reform programs under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) and Extended Fund Facility (EFF). This reform program was aimed at reducing dependence on the oil sector and establishing a market environment for real non-oil GDP growth and investment in the non-oil sector. Increasing the growth rate in the non-oil sector was one of the most important problems to be tackled by the government. These programs included reducing unemployment, strengthening the social safety net and increasing financial stability. To achieve these reforms, the government and IMF implemented containment of government wages, improvements in revenue collection with the introduction of reforms in tax administration, and a sharp reduction in subsidies bills by increasing prices on subsidized goods. As a result, the fiscal cash deficit was reduced from 16 percent of GDP to 0.9 percent from 1994 to 1997. This was supported by aid from oil export countries despite the wide-ranging fluctuations in world oil prices. The real growth rate in the non-oil sector rose by 5.6 percent during 1995-97.  The World Bank is active in Yemen, with twenty-two active projects in 2004, including projects to improve governance in the public sector, water, and education. In 1996 and 1997, Yemen has lowered its debt burden through Paris Club agreements and restructuring U.S. foreign debt. In 2003, government reserves reached $5 billion. The main oil produced and used in Yemen is Marib oil. Marib oil contains associated natural gas. Proven reserves of 10 to 13 trillion cubic feet (283 to 368 km?) could sustain a liquid natural gas (LNG) export project.
Yemen is in the Middle East, in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, west of Oman and south of Saudi Arabia. A number of Red Sea islands, including the Hanish Islands, Kamaran and Perim, as well as Socotra in the Arabian Sea belong to Yemen. At 203,837 mi? (527,970 km?), Yemen is the world's 49th-largest country (after France). It is comparable in size to Thailand, and somewhat larger than the U.S. state of California. Yemen is found at 15? N 48? E. Until recently its northern border was undefined because the Arabian Desert prevented any human habitation there. The country can be divided geographically into four main regions: the coastal plains in the west, the western highlands, the eastern highlands, and the Rub al Khali in the east. The Tihamah ("hot lands") form a very arid and flat coastal plain. Despite the aridity, the presence of many lagoons makes this region very marshy and a suitable breeding ground for malarial mosquitoes. There are also extensive crescent-shaped sand dunes. The evaporation in the Tihama is so great that streams from the highlands never reach the sea, but they do contribute to extensive groundwater reserves; today these are heavily exploited for agricultural use. The Tihamah ends abruptly at the escarpment of the western highlands. This area, now heavily terraced to meet the demand for food, receives the highest rainfall in Arabia, rapidly increasing from 100 mm (4 inches) per year to about 760 mm (30 inches) in Ta'izz and over 1,000 mm (40 inches) in Ibb. Agriculture here is very diverse, with such crops as sorghum dominating, but cotton and many fruit trees are also grown, with mangoes being the most valuable. Temperatures are hot in the day but fall dramatically at night. There are perennial streams in the highlands but these never reach the sea because of high evaporation in the Tihama. The central highlands are an extensive high plateau over 2,000 metres (6,560 feet) in elevation. This area is drier than the western highlands because of rain-shadow influences, but still receives sufficient rain in wet years for extensive cropping. Diurnal temperature ranges are among the highest in the world: ranges from 30 ?C (86 ?F) in the day to 0 ?C (32 ?F) at night are normal. Water storage allows for irrigation and the growing of wheat and barley. Sana'a is located in this region. The highest point in Yemen is Jabal an Nabi Shu'aya, at 3,760 meters (12,336 ft). The Rub al Khali in the East is much lower, generally below 1,000 metres, and receives almost no rain. It is populated only by Bedouin herders of camels.
While the national language is Arabic (spoken in several regional dialects), Yemen is one of the main homelands of the South Semitic family of languages, which includes the non-Arabic language of the ancient Sabaean Kingdom. Its modern Yemeni descendants are closely related to the modern Semitic languages of Eritrea and Ethiopia. However, only a small remnant of those languages exists in modern Yemen, notably on the island of Socotra and in the back hills of the Hadhramaut coastal region. Modern South Arabian languages spoken in Yemen include Mehri, with 70,643 speakers, Soqotri, with an estimated 43,000 speakers in the Socotra archipelago (2004 census) and 67,000 worldwide, and Bathari (with an estimated total of only 200 speakers). Foreign language in public schools is taught from grade seven on, though the quality of public school instruction is low. Private schools using a British or American system teach English and produce proficient speakers, but Arabic is the dominant language of communication. The number of English speakers in Yemen is small compared to other Arab countries such as Egypt, Lebanon, the UAE and Saudi Arabia. Private schools have also started to teach French alongside Arabic and English.
Name :Republic of Yemen
Motto : Allah, al-Watan, at-Thawra, al-Wehda ,God, the Nation, the Revolution, Unity
Anthem : United Republic
Capital : Sana'a (15°21'18\"N 44°12'25.2\"E)
Area : Total 554,968 km² (48th)
Population : 2016 estimate 27,584,213 (48th)
Currency : Yemeni Rial (YER)
Time zone : (UTC+3)
ISO 3166 code : YE
Calling code : +967
SANA'A It is divided into the capital city and province of Sana'a capital city, it is the political and historical capital city of Republic of Yemen. It is situated in the midst of the Yemeni plateau in the lowlands of Sana'a between the two mountains Nugum and Ayban at a height of about 2200 m. above sea level. It is Sam city by informed people and Azal in the verse of poets. Naming it Sana'a was because of the quality it made itself like saying a beautiful lady. It was known by this name since the birth of Christ, peace on him its heart is the old Sana'a which still preserves its original structural characteristics and the most important touristic and the antiquity features in the capital city. GHAMDAN PALACE. THE Great Mosque. souk AL-Milh,i.e. salt Market. Old Simserat, Bab AL-Yemen Museum, the Military Museum ,Museum of Archeology in the University of Sana'a There are a number of historical and archeological location in the province of Sana'a, which has a vest fame such as Ghaiman, Husn Zimarmar, Amran, Naeet, Thula, Zeibeen, Manakha and other places of touristic value.
"WADI DHAHR This fertile Wadi lies west of Sana'a at a distance of some 17 km. Its most prominent landmark is the Wadi Dhahr palace which was the summer residence of the Imam."
"MANAKHA Lies in the middle of Sana'a Hodeida highway. Manakha has benefitted from its being an important road used by the Turks during the past century. It is now the capital of Haraz district and is surrounded by many beautiful villages. ALHAJJARA Here the weather is cool and the atmosphere is mysterious. Alhajara the extraordinary and most impressive example of stone architecture in all Yemen."
"SHIBAM A pre–Islamic city located at the base of Kowkaban mountain. The caves hewn out of the rock are graves used before the advent of Islam .the principal mosque in Shibam is more than a millennium old and retains many of the ancient architecture and designs."
"KOWKABAN Located at a great height above Shibam the name is that of two old castles. It is strongly fortified and the Turks vainly attempted to invade several times. it has water basins and grain silos hewn out of the earth, enabling retention of grain for a long period without opening its gates even once."
"THULA The gem of Yemeni architecture with natural stone. The multi-storey buildings are fully built of stone without the use of cement. there is also the fortress tall towers that render the peak of the mountain steep."
"AL MAHWEET It is distinguished by its individual location overlooking to the terraces of the farms and wadis in which the coffee plantation is enormous as also some equatorial fruits. There are villages over tips of the mountains. The main towns and features in the province are Shibam Kowkaban one of the Himierity civilization centre, Kowkaban is a natural bridge and historical fortress Al Tawila, is embraced by an eagle like mountain Al-Ahjur and Hoffash."
"SAA’DA One of the cities of captivating beauty and was the centre of past great writers, narrators, men of letters, warriors and scholars. it is a fortified city with a mud wall enclosing its houses built of compressed clay. its most prominent landmarks are the great Mosque, the Fortress and the cemetery if Imam Alhadi's family dating back to c.999 Hijriyyah SHAHARA The famed mountainous town located on the summit of "
"Shahara mountain rising to 3,000 m. it was never taken by its stone bridge between two mountains. It is also famed for its Mosques and water cisterns hewn out of the rock.8 years a new city adjacent to the asphalted road linking Sana'a and Saada has appeared."
"TAIZZ Capital of the Rasulid state and one of the fortified cities. Narration about its founding date vary, with some setting the date at 1183 A.D during the era of king Tughtakin and others dating it earlier than that. in any case it was a resort of the kings of Himyar and was known in anceint times by the name of Odaina. its more prominent landmark is the Al sharafya schoolnamed after sultan Alasharf Ismaili the Rasulid. It dates back to c .800 Hijriyyah and is still functioning today."
"ALTURBA The town is located nearby the city Taiz and on the edge of the wadi Almaqatera. from this wadi the waters flow southwards to the Indian Ocean."
"YAFRUS Located near Taiz. The social reformer and scholar Ahmed Alkhamri is buried here his tomb was erected by the Tahirids in honour of this Yemeni reformer and has become a site to which many go to visit."
"SABER MOUNTAIN Lies behind the walls of the ancient city of Taiz and rises to a height of 3,006m. above sea level. From its midst one overlooks the Al –Qahira fortress dominating the ancint city of Taiz. this mountain is famed for the cultivation of qat and various fruits."
"MOKHA An old ancient port of Yemen which shipped Mocha coffee to countries all over the world during the 17th and 18th centuries. At present it witnesses new development with new and modern port facilities and a large power station."
"ZABID Seat of learning and city of scholars. Before being planned in 204 Hijriyyah/819 A.D, it was a small group of tiny villages. beginning with the Al Asha'ri'a and the Nagagib until the decline of the kingdoms, it played the role of the scholarly university. it has retained its architectural and scientific treasures till this day. The city and its walls are both built wth clay."
"BAIT AL FAQEEH The Islamic city of the Zarneeq, nearby Zabid, also famed for its learning. it is also famed for weaving of carpets equal in quality with those of Alsham. it has a weekly suq held on Friday."
"ALKHOKHAH A beautiful costal village taking pride in its golden beaches and the best palm trees in Yemen, the clear warm water of the sea lap it around the year."
"HODEIDAH It is the second largest port of the republic of Yemen. Hodeida has a fish market in the early hours of the day During the past decade Hodeida has witnessed a great extent of expansion and modernization."
"ALTOR Coming down westwards from Hajja the Altor village appears to have many of the architectural features of a Tihama settlement, such as the small stone buildings of the round huts made of wood and straw. it has a weekly suq."
"HAJJAH A fast growing town which used to be an advanced outpost of many opponents of the despotic Imamic rule. it played an important role in aiding the Republicans. its most prominent landmark is Alqahira fort decorated into the walls by the Imams' political prisoners."
"RADA' Capital of the Tahirid state during the 15th century. perhaps the Al –Amiriyya mosque and school 1451-1517 have the most detailed and numerous decorations and varied scripts ranging from the kufic to the common script among all the mosques of Yemen. here also is the fortress built by Shamar Yaro'osh Al-Amiriyya before the christain era."
"ALBAIDHA The capital city is the town of Albaida, in the south eastern of the capital Sana'a, at a height of about 2250m. above sea level. its old houses are distinct by its characteristics which resembles those of the houses found in sada. The areas following the province of Al baida are famous for breeding camels and using them for trasportation and for using the milk. AlBaida is also famous in manufacutring traditional old style clothes. the main regious in the province are Rada'a. in which there is the Amiria school and the ancient fort."
"DAMT Located in wadi Bana and famed for its warm water springs used by people for treatment and cure of various diseases. no other place in yemen can boast the wonderful rocks that beautify the area nearby Damt."
"IBB The lands surrounding ibb receive the greatest amount of rainfall than any other place in Yemen. thus , it lies in the very heart of " Green Yemen "and its mountains are covered with a bed of trees. it also has great architectural edifices."
"JIBLA The capital chosen by Queen Arwa bint Ahmed Alsulaihi, who ruled Yemen during the 11th and 12th centuries A.D the memory of Queen Arwa. whose body now reposes in the great Mosque in Jibla, is still alive in the memory of the people during her long reign lasting for more than fifty years, she realized peace and economic prosperity for the country."
"ALJANAD It has a Mosque that equals the great Mosque in Sana'a in fame, being the oldest Mosque in Yemen. It was built during the lifetime of prophet Mohamed (peace and Blessings of Allah be uponhim) it was built by the revered companion of the prophet. Ma'ad bin jabel in the sixth year of the Hijra."
"ADEN Was in the past the main port of all the ancient Yemeni kingdoms. now it is the largest Yemeni port and is the considered a free trade zone."
"MAEN The political of the Maen kingdom and known in anceint times by the name of Qarnaw. the little temple outside its wall is commonly called "temple of Aad's Daughters There is no doubt it is one of the best religious ruins remaining in the southern part of the arabian peninsula."
"BARAQISH Baraqish was the economic capital of Maen state and was named "Yathil" in anceint times. it was center of the Maenian state which flourished during the 4th century A.D it was an important trading post on gum and frankincense route and still retains its great wall covered with ancient Musnad inscriptions."
"MARIB Capital of the sabaen state. located on the ancient gum and frankincense trade route linking the indian Ocean and the mediterranean sea. its most prominent historic landmark is the dam built by king "Sama Ali Yanuf "in c.3,000 B.C in addition to the dam there are the remnants of ancient temple, the most famous among them being Mahram Bilquis. it has been mentioned in the Holy Quran as the "land of the two paradises" lately a new dam has been constructed in place of the ancient one to make it a verdant oasis once more."
"SHABWA The capital city is Ataq, at a distance of 345 km east of Sana'a, passing by Ramlat Al sab'atein. old Shabwa represents a high position in the old yemeni civilization histort as it was the capital cityfor the state of Hadramaut. Shabwa was booming due to the trade of olibanum and incense and due to its old famous sea port of kana "Bir Ali"now .the main features in it are in Baihan. Haban ,Azan and Hamam Al-Radm."
"SHIBAM HADHARAMAUT The fantastic city of "sky scrapers" The "Manhattan" of the desert."
"SAIYOUN Saiyoun is in Wadi Hadhramaut and is considered one of the most beautiful Yemeni cites with its intricate windows and magnificent place."
"TARIM Tarim is located at the eastern extremity of Wadi Hadhramaut surrounded by the green palm trees The city was in the past a religious city famous for its Islamic university. from that period we still have beautiful minarets, decorated tombs and a rich library."
"HUSN ALGHUAIZI This is the site of an ancient fortress situated at the summit of a cliff overlooking the road to the town of Mukalla. it was built in 1884 after the famous battle of Al Bakarye, this fortress was used as a controlling position of the surrounding farms."
"MUKALLA It is situated 622 km to the east of Aden. the picturesque city is constructed on the Arabian sea, boasting a beautiful gulf and a fine harbor. the scenery here looks like that recounted by Sinbad the sailor. When you are in Al –Mukalla don't forget to visit the old city, the castle and the museum."
"ALMAHARA The capital city is Al-Ghaida. It’s borders the sultanate of Oman. and it distinct that the citizens, besides their Arabic language, speak another verbal dialectic language and it roots go back to the old Yemeni language named in Al Mahara Amharia language. in Al mahara there are many coastal towns out looking to the Arabian sea the main of which are Saihoot, Qashen and Hawf. the Mahara has played a big role in the Yemeni Navigation history and there is situated the port of Nushtoon. it was one of the old centre producing oil banum."
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